Impact of Transition Metal Doped Bismuth Oxide Nanocomposites on the Bandgap Energy for Photoanode Application
Keywords:doping, bandgap, metal oxide, Bi2O3, Photoanode
Chemical co-precipitation approach has been successfully used to synthesize Bi2O3 and Zn/Bi2O3 nanoparticles. Bi2O3 exhibited a band gap energy of 1.78 eV, and Zn/Bi2O3 at 1 & 5% and band gaps of 1.83 eV & 1.99 eV respectively. The statistics unambiguously demonstrate that adding zinc dopant widens the energy gap. The cubic lattice structure of this crystal is produced by a powerful synergy between the zinc ions and bismuth oxide ions. The peaks showed well-aligned conspicuous diffraction peaks of the material, with crystalline peaks at the (110) plane. The Bi2O3 patterns verified that the cubic crystal structure was successfully formed. With a classified orientation at the (110) plane, the synthesized material showed prominent peaks. The most noticeable peaks, with a strong orientation on the (110) plane, were recorded by the bismuth oxide material that was 1% doped. The FTIR peak at 811 cm-1 indicates association with the Bi-O bond, thus verifying the existence of bismuth oxide. Additionally, the peak at 1394 cm-1 corresponds to the C-H bond. The stretching vibrations of O-H were detected within the range of 3200 to 3445 cm-1. The presence of a peak at 1635 cm-1 indicates the utilization of H2O in the experimental procedure, while vibrations of water molecules are observed in the range of 2311 to 2331 cm-1.
M. J. Jabeen Fatima, A. Navaneeth, and S. Sindhu, “Improved carrier mobility and bandgap tuning of zinc doped bismuth oxide,” RSC Adv, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 2504–2510, 2015, doi: 10.1039/c4ra12494d.
T. P. Gujar, V. R. Shinde, C. D. Lokhande, R. S. Mane, and S. H. Han, “Formation of highly textured (1 1 1) Bi 2 O 3 films by anodization of electrodeposited bismuth films,” Appl Surf Sci, vol. 252, no. 8, pp. 2747–2751, 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.04.034.
H. Kim, C. Jin, S. Park, W. I. Lee, I. J. Chin, and C. Lee, “Structure and optical properties of Bi2S3 and Bi2O3 nanostructures synthesized via thermal evaporation and thermal oxidation routes,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 215–216, pp. 151–156, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.10.102.
Y.-J. Huang, Y.-Q. Zheng, H.-L. Zhu, and J.-J. Wang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth (III) coordination polymer and its transformation to nano α-Bi2O3 for photocatalytic degradation,” J Solid State Chem, vol. 239, pp. 274–281, 2016.
A. Shokuhfar, A. Esmaeilirad, and V. Mazinani, “Synthesis and characterization of Bismuth oxide nanoparticles via sol-gel method,” no. January, 2014.
S. E. Pratsinis, “Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles by Flame Spray Pyrolysis,” vol. 18, pp. 1713–1718, 2002.
L. Torrisi et al., “Laser-generated bismuth nanoparticles for applications in imaging and radiotherapy,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 119, pp. 62–70, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2018.03.034.
S. Anandan and J. J. Wu, “Microwave assisted rapid synthesis of Bi2O3 short nanorods,” Mater Lett, vol. 63, no. 27, pp. 2387–2389, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2009.08.022.
Z. A. Zulkifli, K. A. Razak, W. N. W. A. Rahman, and S. Z. Abidin, “Synthesis and Characterisation of Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles using Hydrothermal Method: The Effect of Reactant Concentrations and application in radiotherapy,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 2018, p. 12103. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1082/1/012103.
J. Wu, F. Qin, Z. Lu, H. J. Yang, and R. Chen, “Solvothermal synthesis of uniform bismuth nanospheres using poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) as a reducing agent,” Nanoscale Res Lett, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2011, doi: 10.1186/1556-276X-6-66.
J. La, Y. Huang, G. Luo, J. Lai, C. Liu, and G. Chu, “Synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles by solution combustion method,” Particulate Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 287–290, 2013, doi: 10.1080/02726351.2012.727525.
T. P. Gujar, V. R. Shinde, and C. D. Lokhande, “The influence of oxidation temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of thermally oxidized bismuth oxide films,” Appl Surf Sci, vol. 254, no. 13, pp. 4186–4190, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.01.040.
R. Senthamilselvi and R. Velavan, “Microstructure and photocatalytic properties of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) nanocrystallites,” Malaya Journal of Matematik, vol. S, no. 2, pp. 4870–4874, 2020.
A. Srivastava and A. Katiyar, “Zinc oxide nanostructures,” Ceramic Science and Engineering: Basics to Recent Advancements, pp. 235–262, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-89956-7.00012-7.
I. L. Ikhioya et al., “the Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using the Moringa Oleifera Plant and Its Subsequent Characterization for Use in Energy Storage Applications,” East European Journal of Physics, vol. 2023, no. 1, pp. 162–172, 2023, doi: 10.26565/2312-4334-2023-1-20.
E. N. Josephine, O. S. Ikponmwosa, and I. L. Ikhioya, “SYNTHESIS OF SnS/SnO NANOSTRUCTURE MATERIAL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATION,” East European Journal of Physics, vol. 2023, no. 1, pp. 154–161, 2023, doi: 10.26565/2312-4334-2023-1-19.
I. L. Ikhioya, E. U. Onoh, D. N. Okoli, and A. J. Ekpunobi, “Impact of bismuth as dopant on ZnSe material syntheses for photovoltaic application,” Materials Research Innovations, vol. 00, no. 00, pp. 1–9, 2023, doi: 10.1080/14328917.2023.2180582.
I. L. Ikhioya, F. U. Ochai-Ejeh, and C. I. Uruwah, “Impact of modulated temperature on photovoltaic properties of automated spray fabricated zirconium doped cobalt selenide films,” Materials Research Innovations, vol. 00, no. 00, pp. 1–10, 2023, doi: 10.1080/14328917.2023.2178747.
K. I. Udofia, I. L. Ikhioya, A. U. Agobi, D. N. Okoli, and A. J. Ekpunobi, “Effects of zirconium on electrochemically synthesized tin selenide materials on fluorine doped tin oxide substrate for photovoltaic application,” Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, vol. 99, no. 10, p. 100737, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.jics.2022.100737.
I. L. Ikhioya, G. M. Whyte, and A. C. Nkele, “Temperature-modulated nanostructures of ytterbium-doped Cobalt Selenide (Yb-CoSe) for photovoltaic applications,” Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, vol. 100, no. 1, p. 100848, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.jics.2022.100848.
I. I. Lucky, U. F. C, and I. B. Okeghene, “Growth And Characterization Of Manganese Sulphide (MnS) Thin Films,” International Journal For Research In Applied And Natural Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2018.
I. L. Ikhioya and A. J. Ekpunobi, “of NAMP Electrical and Structural Properties of ZnSe Thin Films by Electrodeposition Technique Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics © J . of NAMP Electrical and Structural Properties of ZnSe Thin Films by Electrodeposition Technique,” no. March, 2015.
I. L. Ikhioya and A. J. Ekpunobi, “Effect of Deposition Period and pH on Electrodeposition Technique of Zinc Selenide Thin Films Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Optical Properties of ZnSe Films,” Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 281–288, 2014.
I. I. Lucky, E. M. Chigozirim, O. Doris O, A. C. Rita, and O. C. Ogonnaya, “The Influence of Precursor Temperature on The Properties of Erbium-Doped Zirconium Telluride Thin Film Material Via Electrochemical Deposition,” International Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 102–109, 2020, doi: 10.14445/23500301/ijap-v7i1p115.
I. I. Lucky, O. D.N, and E. A.J, “Effect Of Temperature On SnZnSe Semiconductor Thin Films For Photovoltaic Application,” International Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 55–67, 2019, doi: 10.14445/23500301/ijap-v6i2p109.
I. L. Ikhioya, I. B. Okeoghene, A. C. B, O. N. Josephine, and A. Yahaya, “Effect of Precursor pHon Cadmium Doped Manganese Sulphide (CdMnS) Thin Films For Photovoltaic Application,” International Journal of Material Science and Engineering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1–8, 2020, doi: 10.14445/23948884/ijmse-v6i2p101.
N. I. Akpu, A. A.D, N. L.A, and I. L. Ikhioya, “Investigation On The Influence of Varying Substrate Temperature On The Physical Features of Yttrium Doped Cadmium Selenide Thin Films Materials,” International Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 37–46, 2021, doi: 10.14445/23500301/ijap-v8i2p106.
W. Raza, D. Bahnemann, and M. Muneer, “A green approach for degradation of organic pollutants using rare earth metal doped bismuth oxide,” Catal Today, vol. 300, no. April 2017, pp. 89–98, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.cattod.2017.07.029.
A. Mathematics, “済無No Title No Title No Title,” no. May, pp. 1–23, 2016.
H. Chen et al., “Synthesis of Li-doped bismuth oxide nanoplates, Co nanoparticles modification, and good photocatalytic activity toward organic pollutants,” Toxicol Environ Chem, vol. 102, no. 7–8, pp. 356–385, 2020, doi: 10.1080/02772248.2020.1798448.
S. K. T. Aziz et al., “A Janus cerium-doped bismuth oxide electrocatalyst for complete water splitting,” Cell Rep Phys Sci, vol. 3, no. 11, p. 101106, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.xcrp.2022.101106.
A. Dere, M. Soylu, and F. Yakuphanoglu, “Solar light sensitive photodiode produced using a coumarin doped bismuth oxide composite,” Mater Sci Semicond Process, vol. 90, no. June 2018, pp. 129–142, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2018.10.009.
S. Ohara and Y. Kuroiwa, “Highly ytterbium-doped bismuth-oxide-based fiber,” vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 14104–14108, 2009.
G. Zhang et al., “Doping of Vanadium into Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles for Electrocatalytic CO2Reduction,” ACS Appl Nano Mater, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 15465–15472, 2022, doi: 10.1021/acsanm.2c03503.
P. S. Cardenas-Terrazas et al., “High ionic conductivity dysprosium and tantalum Co-doped bismuth oxide electrolyte for low-temperature SOFCs,” Ionics (Kiel), vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 4579–4586, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11581-020-03572-y.
M. Mohammadi et al., “Toxicity, morphological and structural properties of chitosan-coated Bi2O3-Bi(OH)3 nanoparticles prepared via DC arc discharge in liquid: A potential nanoparticle-based CT contrast agent,” Micro Nano Lett, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 239–244, 2019, doi: 10.1049/mnl.2018.5145.
N. Motakef-Kazemi and M. Yaqoubi, “Green synthesis and characterization of bismuth oxide nanoparticle using mentha pulegium extract,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 70–79, 2020, doi: 10.22037/ijpr.2019.15578.13190.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nano and Materials Science Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.